rotating ring disk electrode collection efficiency

The new Autolab, rRDE, rotating ring disc electrode, has been launched.
It is easy to predict what the font klavika bold gratis ring/risk current ratios is if this process is entirely controlled by the flow of solution.
As the solution flows to the side it crosses the ring electrode and back into the bulk of the solution.The oxygen reduction reaction on a Pt/carbon fuel cell catalyst in the presence of chloride anions.Structure, the difference between a rotating ring-disk electrode and a rotating disk electrode is the addition of a second working electrode in the form of a ring around the central disk of the first working electrode.A narrow gap reduces the "transit time" necessary for an intermediate species generated at the disk to successfully reach the ring electrode and be detected.Ring-Disc Electrodes, oxford: Clarendon Press 1971 (isbn ) is double working electrode used in hydrodynamic voltammetry, very similar to a rotating disk electrode (RDE).The Autolab rrde uses 2 identical friction-less mercury contacts for low noise measurements and can be used with any Autolab potentiostat/galvanostat fitted with the.That is, it is independent of the rotation rate over a wide range of rotation rates.To operate such an electrode it is necessary to use a bipotentiostat or some potentiostat capable of controlling a four electrode system.Such experiments are useful in studying multi-electrons processes, the kinetics of a slow electron transfer, adsorption/desorption steps, and electrochemical reaction mechanisms.Function, the rrde takes advantage of the form of the laminar flow created during rotation.For example while one electrode conducts linear sweep voltammetry the other can be kept at a constant potential or also swept in a controlled manner.
Using precision machining techniques, it is possible to make gaps between.1 and.5 millimeters, and narrower gaps have been created using microlithography techniques.
The same motor control unit can be used in combination with the rrde and the.